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Table of Contents

HOW CHEMICAL BONDS FORM and CHEMICAL REACTIONS PROCEED

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1. Introduction   12
1.1.

Why This Book Is Necessary

  12
1.2.

Questions Which the Book Answers

  14
1.3.

Whom the Book Is Intended For

  16
2. How Chemical Bonds Form   16
2.1.

Historic Review of Scientific Works

  16
2.1.1.

Works up to 1913

  16
2.1.2.

Works from 1913 to 1970

  18
2.1.3.

Works from 1970 to 1994

  24
2.2.

Explanation of the Nature of Chemical Bonding


27
2.2.1.

How the Atom Is Constructed

  27
2.3.

Forces Which Bond Atoms into Molecules

  31
2.3.1.

What Was the Main Problem in Chemical Bonding?

  31
2.4.

The G Theory of Chemical Bonding

  33
2.4.1.

Qualitative Descriptions of the Physical Nature of the Enthalpy Factor

  33
2.5.

Quantitative Evaluation of Chemical Bonding Energy

  37
2.5.1.

Quantitative Evaluation of the Enthalpy Contribution

  37
2.5.1.1.

Models and Mathematical Equations

  37
2.5.2.

Quantitative Evaluation of Entropy Contribution

  44
2.5.3.

Quantitative Energy Calculations of Homo-atomic Covalent Bonding (Based on Model)

  50
2.5.3.1.

Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Data

  53
2.5.3.2.

Quantitative Calculations of Energy in Hetero-atomic Covalent Bonding

  58
2.5.3.3.

Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Data

  58
2.5.4.

Multiple Bonds

  71
2.5.5.

Conclusion

  73
2.6.

First Addition to the G Theory of Chemical Bonding

  75
2.6.1.

Valence Rules

  89
2.6.2.

Donor-Acceptor Bonds (DAB)

  89
2.6.3.

Van der Waals Bonds (VWB)

  95
2.7.

Second Addition to the G Theory of Chemical Bonding

  95
2.7.1.

Electronic Transition Reactions

  98
2.8.

Three-Dimensional Structures of Chemical Compounds

  103
3. How Chemical Reactions Proceed   108
3.1.

Brief Historic Review

  108
3.1.1.

Theory of Active Collisions (TAC)

  108
3.1.2.

Transition State Theory (TST)

  110
3.2.

Theory of Elementary Interactions (TEI)

  113
3.2.1.

Association Reactions (AR)

  114
3.2.2.

Dissociation Reactions (DR)

  116
3.2.3.

Association-Dissociation Reactions (ADR)

  116
3.2.4.

Electronic Transition Reactions (ETR)

  120
3.3.

Radical Reactions

  124
3.3.1.

Formation of Radicals

  124
3.3.2.

Interaction of Atomic Bromine with Iodine

  124
3.3.3.

Interaction of HO Radical with Carbon Oxide

  125
3.3.4.

Interaction of Hydrogen and Iodine

  129
3.3.5.

Interaction Between D2 and HCl

  130
3.3.6.

Interaction of Hydrogen with Oxygen

  133
3.3.7.

Chemically Activated Reactions

  133
3.4.

Ionic Reactions

  135
3.4.1.

Formation of Ions

  135
3.4.2.

Interaction of Positive Ions with Molecules

  136
3.4.3.

Interaction of Positive Ions

  140
3.4.3.1.

Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions

  141
3.4.4.

Interaction of Negative Ions with Saturated Molecules

  141
3.4.4.1.

Nucleophile Substitution Reactions

  141
3.5.

Conence Reactions

  144
3.5.1.

Conence Formation

  145
3.5.2.

Substitution and Ligand Exchange Reactions

  146
3.5.3.

Ligand Introduction Reactions

  151
3.5.4.

Reduction Elimination Reactions

  152
3.5.5.

Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions in Conence Compounds

  152
3.6.

Additions to Alkenes

  153
3.7.

Molecular Reactions

  155
3.8.

Basic Kinetic Correlations in Chemical Reactions

  155
3.9.

General Explanation of Catalysis

  160
4. Physical and Chemical Properties of Substances   163
4.1.

Physical Properties of Substances

  163
4.2.

Chemical Properties of Substances

  163
 

Summary

  173

Detailing the process of photochemical decomposition of a hydrogen molecule

177
 

The experimental data on the bond length in
the hydrogen molecule

  183
Theory of Chemical Bonding and Chemical Structure 189
 

Theory of Chemical Reactions

  193
 

Supplement I

   
 

A New Approach to Chemical Mechanics (First Report)

  202
 

A New General Approach to Chemical Mechanics (Second Report)

  210
 

General Theory of Chemical Bonding, Kinetics and Catalysis

  218
 

Chapters from A New General Theory of Chemical Bonding, Kinetics, and Catalysis

  239
 

On the General Theory of Chemical Bonding and Chemical Kinetics

  247
 

Theory of Chemical Bonding

  250
 

Basic Kinetic Regularities in the Light of the New Approach

  262
 

General Catalysis Theory

  272
 

Summary

  276
 

On the Nature of Covalent Chemical Bonding

  283
 

Positive Charge Concentration Decrease in the Process of Dissociation

  285
 

Compensation of Entropy Decrease

  286
 

Conclusion

  290
 

Brief Phenomenological Explanation Concerning Atom Structure, Chemical Bonding, and Chemical Reactions

  298
 

Atom Structure

  298
 

Conclusion

  301
 

Molecule Structure; Chemical Bonding

  301
 

Chemical Reactions and Catalysis

  303
 

Evaluation of Precision in Calculating the Enthalpy of a Hydrogen Molecule

  313
 

Once Again on the Problem Concerning the Physical Nature of Chemical Bonding

  318
 

Theory of Heat Capacity

  331
 

Theory of Electronic Spectra in Molecules

  333
 

On the Contemporary State of Works about the Theory of Chemical Reactions

  335
 

Notes for the Teacher

  343
 

Supplement II

   
 

A New General Theory of Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis (Report XXIII)

  347
 

A New General Theory of Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis (Report XXIV)

  357
 

Concerning Mass and Wave Characteristics of Particles

  373
 

About Quantum Mechanics

  388
 

Once Again on Physics

  391
 

Gravitation

  397
 

Inertia

  402
Structure of elementary particles 411
 

Internuclear Forces and Transition of Mass into Energy

  416
Concise hystorical analysis of the evolution of heoretical physics (semilyrical digression) 424
 

Force FAS (F - force and S - entropy)

  442
 

About the Wave Properties of Micro-Particles

  443
 

General Conclusions

  452
 

The Main Points in Chemistry that Offered New Results

  453
 

Theory of Chemical Bonding and Chemical Structure

  453
 

Theory of Chemical Reactions

  457
 

The Main Points in Physics that Offered New Results

  457
 

The Physical Nature of Chemical Bonding

  461
 

Explanation about the Molecular Electronic Spectra

  462
 

The main points in the sphere of physics which, in Principle, offered  new results


464
 

The Main Novelties of Scientific Methodology

  470
 

Role of Calculations, Hypotheses, and Experiments in Theory

  470

On theTransformation of Chemical and Physical Education

 

471